Letter from the Editor
The coronavirus crisis is having an impact on everyone in Australia, even those who haven't lost their jobs, caught the virus themselves or lost a loved one. It's devastating that after the bushfires ravaged the country, we had to experience this new threat to our lives and livelihoods.
This doesn't mean climate change isn't still happening, though. Emissions may have drastically decreased with the closures of thousands of factories, but this will likely not have a long-term impact on climate change. However, this crisis presents an excellent opportunity to change both our power sources and perspective on climate change. Not to mention educate ourselves by watching documentaries and reading books about climate, and the environment in general, from the comfort of our own homes. This Issue explores what the environmental silver lining may be for this crisis, reports on a positive leap made for the environment this year in the Bight, asks some important questions about the future of renewable energy, includes some light 'comic relief' and takes a step back to the black summer we just experienced to remind us that unless we keep focussed on climate change disasters like that can and will happen again. Meanwhile, enjoy Issue #5, and Happy World Environment Day!
(Celebrating 3 years of Green Force!)
From Nicola Allen and Green Force
Oil drilling in the bight cancelled
In the light of the devastating bushfire crisis which gripped the Eastern coast of Australia for months, the temperature records being smashed almost daily, the worst drought in living memory costing farmers thousands of dollars, the rising death toll of both wildlife and humans in Australia and the displacement of thousands of people due to ravaging fires, not to mention to angry backlash at the government for negligence when it comes to climate change, you might expect some stronger action and convincing leadership in that area from the people in power.
Instead, last December NOPSEMA, (National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority) fully supported by the SA government, announced that it had approved the Norwegian oil company Equinor's environmental plan for drilling in the Great Australian Bight. This followed years of protesting by environmental groups such as Greenpeace and the Wilderness Society, and refusals by the Aboriginal people of the Nullarbor plains, the traditional custodians of the land and sea, to allow Equinor to drill. But their land rights and protestations have been ignored. Until now. Just this February, Equinor announced that they were withdrawing from the Bight after all! They stated that it had to do with commercial considerations. Jone Strangeland, the Australian manager for the company, said, "Following a holistic review of its exploration portfolio, Equinor has concluded that the project’s potential is not commercially competitive compared with other exploration opportunities in the company." Here's why, even if it hadn't been too expensive, withdrawing was the right thing to do.
“We are gobsmacked that NOPSEMA could approve Equinor’s plan that experts have slammed.”
After the company withdrew:
"It’s been a while coming, but the right decision is the right decision, and we have no doubt that the hundreds of thousands of people that have supported the campaign to fight for the Bight will be both delighted and relieved to hear this news."
Wilderness Society S. Australia director Peter Owen
First, a little Geography and History. The Great Australian Bight is an enormous open bay which occupies almost all of Australia's Southern coastline. It is due South of the Nullarbor plains, which have been home to Aboriginal people for thousands of years. Some consider it to be part of the Southern Ocean, but mostly it is known as a part of the Indian Ocean. Although, as I said before, the land has been sacred to the Aboriginal people of the Nullarbor plains for over 120,000 years, it was first encountered by Europeans when a Dutch navigator called François Thijssen sailed to the Western edge, in 1627. The Bight is no stranger to environmental exploitation. The critically endangered bluefin tuna which live there have been preyed upon by the fishing industry, and since the 1960s the area has been explored for oil and gas.
The Bight is a pristine biodiversity hotspot. A staggering 85% of species who live there are found nowhere else on the planet. These include dolphins and whales, who go there to breed annually, as well as smaller animals such as rare and beautiful sea dragons. The Bight is extremely important to protect and conserve, making it the worst possible place for oil drilling to happen. And Equinor's drilling could have been particularly dangerous, according to The Australia Institute’s SA projects manager Noah Schultz-Byard.
“Equinor have already had 239 oil spills in their history and, according to their own modelling, a major incident in The Bight would cover thousands of kilometres of the Australian coastline."
Energy and natural resource experts led by Sydney University say that Equinor is overconfident in its ability to prevent and manage oil spills. Here is a quote from a submission by them to NOPSEMA:
“Throughout the environmental plan, Equinor has consistently made optimistic choices in order to convince the public and NOPSEMA that ‘it is safe’ to drill.
“However, we saw a similar style of overconfidence demonstrated in BP’s proposal to drill in the Gulf of Mexico, which led to one of the world’s biggest oil spills in 2010.
“History has shown us that overconfidence precedes catastrophic failure in many spheres of engineering endeavour. No matter how many layers of defence there are between a hazard and an accident, accidents can and still do happen.”
In other words, drilling in the Bight was a bad idea and spills were likely to occur. And since the Bight is so large and wild, containing the spill would have been much harder than it was in Mexico: as it was, the Mexico disaster became catastrophic.
Another major concern is the chemical that Equinor might have resorted to using in the event of a spill. This is an oil dispersant called Corexit 9500, and it was used in the Deepwater Horizon Spill with devastating consequences for both the wildlife and the response workers. Studies from James Cook university show that the chemical can make the consequences of the oil spill worse rather than better, causing symptoms in humans such as "nausea, memory loss, nervous system damage and irritation to the skin, eyes, nose and throat", and harming wildlife.
“Studies from the Deepwater Horizon spill show that dispersants mixed with oil are often more toxic to marine life than oil alone.”
Professor Jodie Rummer, James Cook University
Apart from protecting the natural environment, there is significant danger to the aforementioned fishing industry, and the tourism industry, as well as many other jobs and livelihoods that rely on the Bight right along the Southern Coast of Australia. According to a report from the Australia Institute, 27,000 jobs in all could be affected, not just in South Australia but across the southern parts of Victoria and Tasmania as well. 7,500 of these would be in Tasmania, while the other 20,000 would be in South Australia and Victoria. (It should be noted that the head of TICT - "the peak body for Tasmania’s tourism industry" - said he thought climate change posed a bigger threat to them than oil spills.)
“The approval flies in the face of experts, communities, traditional owners, surfers, coastal families and the South Australian seafood industry who have all relentlessly campaigned against plans to drill for oil in the Great Australian Bight for over five years.”
Jamie Hanson, Greenpeace
Finally, and most importantly, the government has not sought permission from the Aboriginal people of the Nullarbor Plains, regarding the oil drilling. It's as if land rights didn't even exist, and it's obvious that the government has little to no regard for the Aboriginal people. In a statement, Bunna Lawrie, an elder of the Mirning tribe, expresses this all beautifully. (Transcript is original, not copied from another source.)
"Greetings and hello, from our country Australia, the Nullarbor and the Great Australian Bight. My name is Bunna Lawrie, from the Mirning tribe of the Nullarbor, GAB. I'm a whale songman, an elder, protector of the whale, protector of the ocean, and a keeper and a custodian of the whale people in the GAB.
"We come from Nature. We come from the ocean, and the whale dreamtime. Consultation is very important to us, but Equinor did not come to me and the elders, traditional owners of that country, the people of the whale, keepers of the whale - that's shown as very disrespectful to us. None of them people came to talk to us about our country. And we are hurt by it, because we love our ocean, we love the whales. And we love our country, and we respect it. My people have looked after that ocean, and the whale nurseries and the whale sanctuary for 120,000 years, and it's beautiful. It's pristine like it is.
"Mother Earth gave us everything, created that part of the world for us. Mankind will never make it any greater than what Mother Nature has provided us with."
Thankfully, Equinor have since cancelled their plans for drilling, but the South Australian government was enthusiastic about the plan, and so was the federal government, Keith Pitt, the Federal minister for Resources, stating that, "The Bight Basin remains one of Australia's frontier basins and any proposals for new oil and gas fields in this area will be assessed fairly and independently."
Rather than waiting for the government to change their tune, the Wilderness Society of Australia took legal action against NOPSEMA in January, a move which has in the past proven to be the most effective option in dealing with many environmentally destructive projects. But Equinor still, "hold an exploration permit offshore [in] Western Australia and will maintain other ongoing interests and activities in Australia." (Jone Strangeland.) So, now more than ever, through these difficult times, it is imperative to stand together in solidarity with the Aboriginal people and conserve the land and sea which belong to every Australian who is willing to protect them.
Experiencing the bushfires
On the 21st of December, 2019, I discovered that there is a fine line between excitement and terror.
My alarm wakes me up at five in the morning. We're taking my dad to the train this morning. There's a catastrophic fire warning for the Shoalhaven - we don't want to risk it. My grandma will follow soon after. I have a quick hot shower followed by a cold one and then wolf down a bowl of cereal before clambering into the back of the car. Mum told me last night to pack everything I had brought down to my grandma's place in the bush that I absolutely needed, in case… well, we don't think too much about the possibilities. My brain can't quite register the concept that when, or if, we return home tonight, there might not be a home to return to. As we pull out of the gravel drive, and I glance back at the low house, wrapped in corrugated iron, it seems so permanent. Surely nothing can ever change here.
As we drive down the road, I watch the countryside flicking past the window. The paddocks wreathed in fog; cows munching on dew-wet grass; an enormous kangaroo standing on his hind legs, turning his majestic head to watch as we pass by; the sky, pale dawn dove-grey, with an ominous dark red sun rising over the hills in the east.
We have taken refuge for most of the day at the Nowra Aquatic Centre, due to temperatures reaching 43 degrees. I float peacefully on my back in the swimming pool, surrounded by the sounds of children splashing and playing. Suddenly, a chill wind blows across my damp face. I shiver and open my eyes, blinking away the chlorinated water. The Southerly change, I think. The one which could change the whole situation, which we were listening to on the radio about all this morning. I clamber out of the pool, suddenly colder than before, and walk across the wide expanse of concrete to the shade where my mother and grandmother are sitting. My grandmother is fanning herself with a paper plate - mum is watching the sky with a grim expression.
Suddenly, the phone rings. Nanny picks up. "Hello? Oh, hi Peter, yes we're just at the pool, we're fine." Peter is my grandmother's brother in law, married to her sister. They live in Queensland, and since they have dealt with bushfires before, Peter has been giving us constant advice.
"What's the news?" I ask, trying to sound calm. Mum, who's listening to Peter, holds up a finger for silence. I look back at the grey sky. On the TV earlier today I saw that there's a fire, the Tianjara fire, burning near Nowra. Seeing the smoke from a bushfire that I originally saw on TV is surreal.
"It's nothing," says mum turning back to me, "Peter was just reminding us about the fire." I nod with relief. I had half thought that he was calling to say that our house was burnt to the ground.
"Hello. How are you?" The reassuring sound of my friend's voice.
"Ok. Well, I mean, sort of." I laugh shakily. "I'm in the bush and the fire is surrounding Nowra."
The FaceTime image comes into focus, and I see him sitting on his couch. "Oh, ok…"
I roll my eyes. "Have you been watching the news at all?"
I burst out laughing. "Seriously? We are in a bushfire emergency and you haven't been keeping up to date with the latest info?"
"No, not really."
I sigh dramatically. "Boys."
"Hey!" But he doesn't mean it.
"But seriously, it is kind of scary." I turn the phone around so that he can see the billowing plume of smoke on the horizon, and the bruised colour of the sky.
"Oh, wow. It's the APOCALYPSE!"
"Can't you be serious for one second?"
He laughs easily. "I'm the comic relief."
This makes me crack up. Trust friends to make you laugh. "Well, then I suppose I'm, what, Mad Max Fury Road?"
"Yes!" He starts singing the theme song. I run down the hill and start pacing up and down the wooden pier over the river. The water has bits of ash floating in it, and reflects the blood-red hue of the sun. A dark leaf falls out of the sky. At first I think it's just a normal leaf, but then I see that it's black and burnt. Part of it smudges off onto my fingers. I can't very well wipe it onto my silk party dress, which I am wearing in preparation for the neighbourhood Christmas party we were planning that evening. My exhilaration at being in a potentially dangerous situation, and being able to dramatize it to a friend, begins to twist and turn until it is unrecognisable. Fear creeps up my throat. Real, cold fear.
We have decided to go back into the bush for the party, because the fire is still several kilometres away. As we drive through the bush, I text my friend that I will soon be out of mobile signal. Then, suddenly, I am. The air is smoky, and the sun having disappeared early, it's already unnaturally dark. The sky is purple and orange, and a wild wind whips through the trees. I pull on a pair of track pants underneath my dress, and a matching hoodie over the top, because suddenly the heat has turned to cold, just the way that the metaphorical heat of excitement has been replaced by the horrible, cold fear. I suppose writers can't help but think of such things, even when they are in dangerous situations.
I also worry that my mum will think I am scared, so I pretend to be brave as best I can. I keep quiet, allowing her to concentrate on the road, and listen to the regular ABC radio bushfire information broadcasts, our temporary lifeline to the world.
And I think of why this is happening. Why I am feeling the fear I am feeling right now, as hundreds of thousands of other children in Australia are too. Why these bushfires are ravaging the country so fiercely and for such a long period of time.
(I took the photos below on the day.)
Finally we arrive at the house. Our neighbours welcome us in, I pat the dog and we sit down to dinner. But I can't shake the horrible feeling that everyone is trying hard to talk about anything other than the fires. The pavlova doesn't taste as sweet this year.
When we go out later onto the balcony, spots of rain are beginning to fall. The main storm passes over us, but the reaction to any water at all falling on this drought-stricken country is amazing. People cheer and laugh as if the worst is over. But I know that isn't true. The fire is still creeping steadily towards us, and nothing and no-one can stop its encroachment.
We left the neighbourhood a few days later. My grandma's house survived when the fire went through, thanks to the efforts of the neighbours to manage it, and the fact that the weather that day was mild. But we could easily have become one of the 2,500 homes destroyed in this bushfire season in NSW alone, not to mention the containers which would have been added to the list of 5,388 outbuildings destroyed.
11.7 million hectares of land burnt. Over a billion animals killed, and 33 people. Now, in the wake of the fires, more than 20 areas of NSW have been issued with flood alerts due to the unusually torrential rainfall we have been experiencing. This is climate change, right here in Australia, right now. More extreme weather, more frequently.
The scientists told us this would happen. In fact, on Monday 3rd of February, 270 Australian scientists signed an open letter to the government, urging them to drastically cut carbon emissions. "These extreme events will only grow worse in the future without genuine concerted action to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases," the letter states. The signatories were made up of climate scientists and meteorologists, among others. One of them, Nerilie Abram, a climate scientist from the Australian National University, said, “Scientists have been warning policymakers for decades that climate change would worsen Australia’s fire risk, and yet those warnings have been ignored.”
The science is clear. The solutions are here. All we need is political action to tip the balance.
Turning this ship around - corona and climate crossroads
Note from the author: This article was so long that I decided to put it in two parts. The second part will appear in Issue #6. Enjoy.
For several months now, many of us, around the world, have been in isolation, ranging from the strictest of lock-downs in Italy and China to the milder social distancing restrictions imposed on Australian citizens. The transition from business as usual to the unfamiliar ground of a global pandemic was sudden, though not entirely unprecedented. Scientists have been warning us about the imminent arrival of the next global health meltdown for decades. And speaking of both literal and metaphorical meltdowns, what about that other huge crisis scientists have been warning us about for nearly half a century? During the pandemic, coronavirus has dominated the news - understandably, as, horrifyingly, there have been almost 400,000 deaths (391,136 as of 5 minutes ago, according to Microsoft Bing's map - when I first drafted this article there were only about 320,000). But it does make it difficult to know what's going on with the environment. While we've been staying inside, animals have been coming out and reclaiming empty cities. And we should take this opportunity to appreciate a brief moment of reconnection with nature. Because we cannot realistically continue with business as usual any longer. Perhaps this crisis was just what the world needed to make the most important transition of all: away from fossil fuels and towards clean energy. "To wake up and change," as Greta Thunberg would say. Maybe, this pandemic, horrific as it now seems, could be the start of the energy revolution.
Of course, it's not all good news. There are some negative impacts which the novel virus is having on the environment and climate change, and even some of the good effects won't last forever.
But first let's follow the virus to its source. As far as we currently know, a wet market in Wuhan, China. The virus was transferred to humans when a disease from a bat jumped to a human, possibly via an illegally traded pangolin, whose scales are mistakenly believed to have medicinal properties. In other words, the virus outbreak could be a direct product of the illegal wildlife trade. SARS also came from a Chinese wet market. This type of outbreak is more likely to happen the more humans engage in live animal trading, illegal or otherwise, and the more habitat destruction occurs, driving animals closer to humans and ultimately creating danger for both humans and the animals themselves.
As Jane Goodall puts it, "We have to learn to think differently about how we interact with the natural world…" Dr Andrew Peters is an associate professor in wildlife health and pathology at Charles Sturt university. Agreeing with Jane, he says, "In Australia we've seen a number of emerging infectious diseases, including Hendra virus, which is obviously a very well-known and deadly virus that infects horses and humans from bats… The causes of that are thought to be deforestation on the coastal plain of Australia and the pressure that puts on bat populations as they move down to the coast in winter."
So, the virus is inherently connected to environmental problems. Does it cause them too? While the overwhelming majority of news coverage connecting these topics has been favourable, COVID-19 has also been having negative impacts on environmental causes. Many threatened or endangered species require close surveillance after the "Black Summer" bushfires we've just had in Australia, to ensure that they don't go extinct altogether. However, it has proved difficult for scientists, environmentalists or government officials to monitor the animals due to bans on meetings and travel. The only work they're allowed to do directly is pest and weed management as well as emergency food drops. Projects have also ground to a halt. For example, a predator-proof fence has been erected on Kangaroo Island to protect threatened mammal species from excessive predation. While 13.5 hectares might seem quite large for an island, the final plan was for the enclosure to be 370 hectares, and has had to be, at the least, put on hold indefinitely, if not cancelled altogether. One piece of good news on this front is that our government has allocated A$50 million to help fund the wildlife recovery.
Surely the dramatic drop in global emissions has been beneficial to the environment? Have emissions actually dropped that much? And what can we learn from the pandemic that can help us defeat climate change? Find out in Issue #6 - coming soon!
Movies and books to watch and read during corona lockdown
Before the Flood, Documentary, Leonardo DiCaprio
I do not think I will ever see a more convincing and gutting portrayal of anthropogenic climate change. Leonardo DiCaprio uses his status as a celebrity and a UN messenger of peace to bring attention to the climate crisis in this documentary. He talks with experts about the problems and the solutions, going to the places and the people around the world who have been the worst affected. The movie builds to the Paris Climate Agreement and changes its focus to the politics of climate and the reasons for decades of inaction. The facts are laid bare and are, therefore, all the more terrifying. But there are also solutions in the documentary - which will only be used to save the planet, we are keenly reminded, if we all work together and do everything we possibly can. We are in the stage before the flood; before it is too late. We can still fix this, together.
An Inconvenient Truth, Documentary, Al Gore
This is, some people say, the ultimate and most controversial climate change documentary of all time. And it cannot be denied that the concept of climate change was given a complete makeover when this movie came out. It confronts the viewer with the science and devastating impacts of climate change in a way that audiences had not experienced before. It received an unbelievable amount of criticism, as well as winning two academy awards and being given standing ovations… It made Al Gore one of the most hated people by climate change deniers, because he was championing climate change and forcing people to acknowledge the global crisis. Of course, this is a top recommendation. You might think that surely its sequel can't get any better…
An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power
Well, in my opinion, you'd be wrong. An Inconvenient Sequel is an excellent movie, which won six different awards, although, sadly, not an Academy. It revisits the controversies surrounding its predecessor and then proceeds to show the latest evidence and effects of climate change. Like Before the Flood, it leads up to, and a little beyond, the Paris Climate Agreement. It reminds us once more that climate change is here, but that now we are surprisingly close to passing the positive tipping point, and if we take action, we can yet stop it. This is also the personal story of a man who has spent the latter part of his adult life campaigning for climate change. Bold and incredibly powerful, this is the best possible sequel to An Inconvenient Truth.
Mission Blue, Documentary, Sylvia Earle
I would say dive into this documentary, but that would be cliché. Follow the incredible story of Dr Sylvia Earle, 74 and still actively campaigning for the environment, as she shows us how the ocean is being destroyed by human activity, and proposes inspiring solutions to save it. She says, "I see things that others do not. A different world. A world that's changed enormously, just in my lifetime." And in that lifetime she has achieved some incredible things… You will see the raw power and beauty of the ocean and appreciate it as never before.
Make the World Greta Again (documentary)
(Warning for primary audiences and parents: BS at 9:43, F-word at 10:03.)
I loved this excellent portrayal of the school strikes. It's short and spicy, and really shows how quickly the climate strikes have spread all over the world. It also includes the story of Greta's own personal struggle with depression when she first learned about climate change, and how she flipped the despair on its head and started the school strike for climate movement. From Stockholm to Berlin to Brussels to London, this is a story of rebellion and perseverance, about the game-changers of our generation, and the challenges they face in their fight for their future.
Deforestation in Peru: a slippery slope
This short movie captures the tragedy of deforestation and the impact it has had on developing countries and the climate. Produced by Ecosia, the search engine that plants trees, this video will summarise why the work they do in places around the world is so crucial to the survival of our planet, and the amelioration of many people living in poverty. If you don't have time to view some of the longer ones, surely you can spare ten minutes of your day to think of the Peruvian forests.
Last year, Australian actor and filmmaker Damon Gameau launched a ground-breaking documentary of environmental heroism and action. 2040, a movie focussing on solutions to the existential threat of anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change, has been called inspiring, uplifting, and a compelling vision… And yes, I reviewed this movie last year. You can read the entire thing in in Issue 4. As Damon said, “Not only are there so many people willing to take part in telling a new story, but we have everything we need, right now, to make it happen.” As the saying goes, what's your 2040? This documentary encourages you to go out and create your own.
2040 - A Guide to the Regeneration (accompanying book)
The joy I experienced upon receiving this book was astronomical, as I had greatly enjoyed the movie. It did not disappoint, going deeper into science and solutions on a personal and wide scale. Do not be intimidated by its size - some pages are taken up entirely with huge diagrams or photographs. Accompanied by lovable illustrations and written with sincerity and a playful tone, this is the excellent alternative to the movie if you didn't get a chance to see it.
Silent Spring (book)
A Silent Spring was one of the most controversial and famous books of its time. Rachel Carson, a mild-mannered marine biologist, was recovering from chemotherapy but still managed to publish the book and withstand the barrage of criticism she received from the powerful pesticide industry, whom she exposed for their lies and the consequent environmental destruction. She was also the author of The Sea Around Us, a book which was well-received but gave no hint at the pioneering environmental figure she would become. She died only two years after its publication, but her incredible legacy lives on through her immortal book. It was directed at adults, but it is still a work for everyone to read, no matter their age. David Attenborough called it the book which had most changed the scientific world after The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin.
Losing Earth: The decade we could have stopped climate change (book)
An astoundingly thorough and well-researched book, Losing Earth is a gutting account of the history of climate change which traces the science and politics to its very roots in a way no other book or documentary has before it. The people are portrayed with realism and humanity, and as "two unlikely heroes" fight to alert the world to the climate crisis back in the 1970s and 1980s, we realise who is really responsible for the situation we currently find ourselves in. Told grippingly and clearly, this is a book which I believe absolutely everyone deserves to read.
Climate Justice: A Man-made Problem with a Feminist Solution (book)
Written by the former president-elect of Ireland, a 75-year-old climate and humanitarian activist, Mary Robinson centers her short but confronting book around the concept of climate justice, drawing on the experiences she has had both in politics and climate negotiations and on the front line of climate change in developing countries. We see the unfolding situation from her own perspective in chronological order, and it pulls at your heartstrings when she looks into the eyes of her new-born grandson and realises he will grow up in a world of climate catastrophe. I thoroughly recommend this book, which was called, "lucid and direct," by the Observer.
The Psychology of Climate Change (book)
A slim volume packed full of mind-blowing psychology, which gets off to an engaging start with a relatable situation called, "A Bus Journey in the Snow". I had forgotten how funny this book was until I reread that introduction! For those of you who are missing science class, take on this challenge while in lockdown. Beware - some of the technical jargon may bog you down. However, if you want to gain in-depth understanding of how we got to the point where some of the most powerful people in politics and the media act as if the climate crisis doesn't exist, then this is the book for you.
How to Live Plastic Free
This comfortable companion to isolation provides you with all the tips you need for a full plastic detox in your home and in your life in a broader sense. Now is a great time to go through your cupboards and see how many of your containers and other items are made of some form of plastic. Start your journey to a plastic-free life!
Cartoon of school strikers and the Honourable Scott Morrison
By Green Force Member - "I was inspired by the idiocy of 'Scomo'..."
This is the fifth edition of GREEN NEWS. In the next issue we'll have lots more news, reviews and inspiring environmental action to report. If you would like to be part of a CUFF action or contribute an article or photo to Green News, write to me at email@example.com Happy World Environment Day - 5 June 2020! (3 years of Green Force.)